IDE’s Global CARDEP Program

Worldwide, IDE is applying the CARDEP approach in selected areas of Bangladesh, India, Nepal, China, Zambia, Vietnam, and Cambodia.

Under CARDEP, IDE begins by analyzing the total business environment on and surrounding small farms in terms of input, production, and output. At the input level, farm families need continued access to high-quality inputs including irrigation technologies, seeds, fertilizers, and pest and disease control options. At the on-farm production level, producers need sophisticated cultivation techniques and knowledge. At the output level, farmers need linkages to local, regional, and national markets for high-value products and access to market information.

At all stages of input, production, and output, IDE identifies limiting constraints in four key areas: credit, capacity, technology, and information. IDE uses the matrix below as a framework for identifying what poor farmers and the small enterprises that serve them need at each level – input, on-farm production, and output – to enable business growth. IDE uses this matrix to identify the most critical constraints and design targeted, market-based interventions.

CARDEP matrix





















CARDEP is more than a production-based income generation project. Isolated production interventions – like promoting cultivation of a profitable vegetable or encouraging farmers to raise fish alongside their rice farms –only realize marginal increases in income, and rely on continuous outside funding.

IDE’s approach systematically increases the sophistication of the farmer-enterprise, increasing the value of human capital assets alongside natural and productive capital. Crucially, IDE leaves behind networks of private enterprises, strengthened agricultural extension services, and output market linkages capable of expanding to meet the changing needs of rural households. Sustained growth in income for small farmers improves family well-being and jumpstarts economic development across poor communities.


Whilst IDE is a non-profit organization, its projects are implemented through profitable and sustainable small and micro enterprises, growing with the trend of economic liberalization in Vietnam

International Development Enterprises

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